Friday, 5 October 2018

Diabetes: types, symptoms, causes, and treatment

DIABETES: TYPES, SYMPTOMS, CAUSES, AND TREATMENT


Diabetes is the chronic medical condition caused by insufficient production as well as secretion of insulin from the pancreas in case of Type 1 diabetes which also know as Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus. In Type 2 Diabetes There will be a defective response to insulin which is also known as Noninsulin-dependent diabetes Mellitus.
    

Work of insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas ) is to control the blood sugar level in the body. After we consume food the blood glucose level is increasing and then insulin is released from the pancreas and controls the glucose level of blood but in case of diabetes, there will be absence or insufficient production of insulin that causes hyperglycemia(increased blood sugar level).

DIABETES IN INDIA 


Diabetes is India's fastest growing disease about 72 million cases recorded till 2017 and this will be double in 2025 diabetes cases in India. this is a serious public health challenge to the country. 

According to the report of the Indian Council for medical research and institute for health metrics and evaluation that diabetes prevalence has increased by 64 percent cases in India.

According to the world health organization featured a sheet on diabetes an estimated 3.4 million death is caused by high blood sugar. that organization also estimated that 80 percents of diabetes deaths occur in low and middle-class income countries and in between 2016 to 2030 deaths due to diabetes may be an increase in double.

In India 2010 about 51 million people are recorded for diabetes and in future 2030 it may be increased to about 87 million. 


TYPE OF DIABETES 

  1. TYPE 1 DIABETES is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes and its developed in children adolescent and young adult so that's why type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes. About 80 percent person is living with type 1 diabetes in an adult. A healthy pancreas produces insulin(hormone) but in type 1 diabetes person pancreas doesn't produce any insulin so with the absence of insulin-glucose level is the increase in body and causing high blood sugar level or hyperglycemia.
  2. TYPE 2 DIABETES is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. In type 2 diabetes pancreas work well and also produce enough insulin for the body but there is the problem of response to insulin from the body and leads to increase glucose level in the body(hyperglycemia).
  3. GESTATIONAL DIABETES:- In pregnancy, some women develop high blood sugar level in the body and leads to hyperglycemia that condition called as gestational diabetes.

CAUSES OF DIABETES 

TYPE 1 DIABETES is an autoimmune condition that destroys the beta cell of the pancreas by our immune system and this damage is permanent.

TYPE 2 DIABETES in this pancreas is normal and also secretion of insulin is also normal but the response to the insulin is not properly done by our body so that's why blood sugar level is increased. There is some factor which is also responsible for developing type 2 diabetes.
  • GENETIC
  • LACK OF EXERCISE 
  • OVERWEIGHT
  • OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL REASON 
GESTATIONAL DIABETES During pregnancy there will be a lot of hormone imbalance occur so that's why there is also an imbalance of insulin and mother developed gestational diabetes.


SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES

GENERAL SYMPTOMS ARE AS FOLLOW 
  • EXCESSIVE THIRST AND HUNGER
  • FREQUENT URINATION
  • DRY AND ITCHY SKIN
  • BLURR VISSION
  • SLOW HEALING WOUND

In type 1 diabetes weight loss occurs and one serious condition ketoacidosis will form if diabetes is poorly controlled.

In type 2 diabetes can causes dark patches in folds of skin.


COMPLICATION

The complication in diabetes occurs due to poor control blood glucose level and can increase the risk of the serious complication that may be life-threatening. 
  • RETINOPATHY( PROBLEM IN RYE VISSION)
  • VESSEL DISEASE ( HEART ATTACK OR STROCK)
  • NEUROPATHY (NERVE DAMAGE)
  • INFECTION OR SKIN CONDITION
  • ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES
  • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE 
  • PREECLAMPSIA 
  • MISCARRIES
  • BIRTH DEFECT

PREVENTION OF DIABETES

Type 1 diabetes is an Autoimmune disease which cannot be prevented so there are no any preventive measures for type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes can be prevented if we change our lifestyle and diet.
  • CONTROL YOUR WEIGHT & MAINTAIN
  • DIET
  • EXERCISE REGULARLY 
  • AVOID SMOKING
  • CONTROL LIPID PROFILE 

TREATMENT OF DIABETES 

We cannot completely treat diabetes but control the sugar level for further complication and live a healthy life with help of your doctor. In diabetes treatment plan our main goal is to control blood sugar level within limits according to which type of diabetes you have.

TYPE 1 DIABETES TREATMENT

In type 1 diabetes pancreas is damage permanently so there will be no any production of insulin occur so for the patient of type 1 diabetes must take insulin to live.

Insulin is directly injected under skin your doctor can teach you to use of insulin pump so you can easily give shoot of the insulin pump in at home.

TYPE 2 DIABETES TREATMENT

Type 2 diabetes managed by diet and exercise and there is some medicine are also available for controlling blood sugar level. Choice of medicine depends on your blood glucose level. Your doctor very well knows which medicine should prescribe in that particular range of blood sugar level.

In both types of diabetes, you should monitor blood sugar level.


FINAL WORD

So this is all about diabetes and its causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment. With the help of your doctor, you can manage all the three type of diabetes easily and can live a healthy life without any complication.




DR. AMIN I BAYAD

(BHMS)

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